The root causes of the First Military World War were secret treaties, imperialism, radical nationalism. The latter was more toxic propaganda. Apart from these, other reasons also helped in making the first post mandatory. The description of all these reasons is given below.
What was the immediate cause of World War I?
1. Gupta Niya Treaty – Due to these treaties, before 1914, the whole of Europe was divided into two powerful factions. Germany’s Prime Minister Bismarck first gave birth to the factional system secret treaties to keep France separate from the European states due to the First World War. After the death of Bismarck’s militarism, German Emperor Kaiser William II gave special impetus to the alliances, as a result of which the background for the First World War was prepared.
2 . Militaryism – Compulsory military education and military service were implemented in France after the French State Revolution (1789 AD). This militarism of France gave impetus to the spirit of militarism in various countries of Europe. The countries of Europe accepted that it is necessary to always be ready for war to maintain national pride. Due to this feeling, there was a big boom in the manufacture of weapons in Europe. This competition reached its climax in the expansion of naval power in England and Germany. This development of militarism caused a stir among the European states and the European rulers, making militarism the basis of their national policy. This mentality also became the cause of the First World War.
3. Fierce Nationality – During the period from 1870 AD to 1914 AD, the feelings of nationality were strong in countries like England, Portugal, Spain, Germany, Italy, France, Belgium, Holland, etc. Because of this feeling every European. The nation was ready to fulfill its national interests and disregard the interests of other nations. All these countries were struggling in Asia, Africa, and the Balkan region. These countries started exploiting other countries. As a result of this, mutual tension, hatred, conflict, rivalry, and hatred created a situation of war in many nations.
4. The problem of Bosnia and Herzegovina – The areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina located in the Balkan region were coming under the Ottoman Empire of Turkey. According to the decision of the Berlin Congress (1878 AD), the administrative control of Austria was placed on these regions, but the dominance of Turkey was maintained on them. But in 1908, Austria made Bosnia and Herzegovina a part of its empire. Serbia claimed its rights over these territories. This caused tension in the relations between Austria and Serbia, which later became the cause of World War I.
5. Moroccan Crisis – Germany was very dissatisfied with the Treaty of Friendship between England and France in 1904 because this friendship agreement had ruined its interests in Morocco. The German Emperor Kaiser William II put before France two demands – the removal of French Foreign Minister Declasse and the Moroccan problem at an international conference – threatening to start the war. An international conference was convened in Spain at the request of France. In this conference, England took the side of France. Meanwhile, in 1907, a friendship treaty was signed between England, Russia, and France. This treaty increased the anger of Germany even more. In 1911, the Moroccan crisis again appeared. This raised the possibility of a war between France and Germany.
Balkan problem – Russia had encouraged the Pan-Slavic movement in the Balkan region. The Christian people of the Balkan nations struggled to be free from Turkish subjugation. On the other hand, Germany’s influence on Turkey started increasing after the Berlin Treaty. Taking advantage of the incompetence of the Turkish Sultan, Italy annexed Tripoli in 1911. Encouraged by this, the Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria) attacked Turkey in 1912 and defeated it badly. After the war, mutual conflict broke out in the Balkan states, in which Bulgaria had to face defeat. These Balkan wars halted the growing German influence in Turkey. Thus the Balkan problem created the atmosphere of the First World War in Europe.
Immediate Cause: Sarajevo Massacre – In the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo, Crown Duke Francis Ferdinand, the successor of the Austria-Hungarian Empire, and his wife were bombed by some terrorists on June 28, 1914. For this Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government and ordered it to accept some humiliating conditions. Serbia refused to accept Austria’s terms. Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia and on July 28, 1914, a declaration of war was also published. Being the protector of the Slavic race of Serbia, Russia also jumped into the war to protect it. On August 1, 1914, Germany declared war on Austria’s side, and on August 3, 1914, England and France declared war on Serbia’s side. Thus began the First World War in Europe.